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Table 1 Study outcomes in the offspring (adults, F1) born from mothers who were either treated with antenatal betamethasone (Steroid) or not treated (Control), and in subsequent generation (children, F2). Data are means and 95% CI, adjusted for confounders.

From: A single antenatal course of betamethasone adversely affects glucose regulation in adulthood and the next generation in childhood

   Steroid Control p-value
Adults (F1) n 23 29  
  1st phase insulin (mU/l) 43.1 (30.9–60.2) 28.1 (20.9–37.8) 0.031
  2nd phase insulin (mU/l) 57.5 (42.6–77.8) 41.6 (31.8–54.4) 0.068
  Total insulin (mU/l) 101.7 (74.7–138.4) 70.4 (53.5–92.6) 0.044
  Insulin sensitivity 16.1 (11.0–22.4) 23.1 (17.3–30.2) 0.061
  Insulin sensitivity last 60 min 14.3 (9.9–19.7) 20.6 (15.7–26.6) 0.048
Children (F2) n 30 31  
  Fasting glucose (mg/dl) 4.88 (4.69–5.12) 4.67 (4.50–4.85) 0.049
  Fasting insulin (mU/l) 5.05 (3.98–6.41) 3.57 (2.79–4.58) 0.008
  HOMA-IR 1.10 (0.85–1.43) 0.74 (0.57–0.98) 0.006