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  • Open Access

Vitamin D status of healthy adolescents from two states in Malaysia

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  • 1,
  • 2 and
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International Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology20152015 (Suppl 1) :P62

  • Published:


  • Obesity
  • Child Health
  • Primary School
  • Western Country
  • Family Income

Hypovitaminosis D is a widespread disorder across all age groups in developing countries. The prevalence of hypovitaminosis D varies from 30-90% depending on the cut off level used to define hypovitaminosis D. In Malaysia, Khor et. al found 35.3% of 402 primary school children aged 7-12 years to have 25(OH)D level < 37.5nmol/L and 37.1% have the level between 37.5-50nmol/L. If a broader definition of hypovitaminosis < 50nmol/L is used then, the prevalence was as high as 74.6%. The risk factors associated with hypovitaminosis D in developing countries are the same as in western countries. The most consistently reported risk factors are female gender, increased skin pigmentation, seasons/latitudes, obesity, concealing clothing style and vulnerable groups (neonates, preschool, elderly).

A total of 469 adolescents (107 PJ, 362 KB) participated in the study. The mean age was 15.6+/-1.4 years. Female gender contributed about 61.0% compared to male gender, 39.1%. As for the race distribution, the proportion of Malay was 79.3%, Chinese 17.7% and Indian 3.0%. Teenagers from KB with family income < RM 1000 was higher (37.8% cf 10.3%; P <0.001). Adolescents from PJ was taller (160.6cm cf 156.3cm; P = 0.02). The mean BMI was 21.0+/-4.4 kgm2. The mean 25(OH)D was19.9+/-8.1, in which PJ had a higher level(21.0 cf 19.6) but the mean differences was not statistically significant. More than half (58%) of adolescents had 25(OH)D < 50nmol/L. The proportion of subjects with 25(OH)D < 50nmol/L was 60.2% in KB and 50.4% in PJ. With regard to the degree of 25(OH)D level, 52% had a level between 25.0-50.0nmol/L, 6% had a level between 12.5-25.0nmol/L. None had a level < 12.5nmol/L.

Chinese had the highest mean of 25(OH)D(23.5+/-8.0; P <0.001) compared to the other 2 races. From multiple logistic regression, significant variables were age (0.84;95%CI :0.72,0.98), gender(boy)(0.13;95%CI;0.08,0.19) and race(Chinese)(0.30;05%C1;0.17,0.53). This study highlights a high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D among adolescents especially in younger adolescents, female and darker skin.

Authors’ Affiliations

Paediatric Department School of Medical Sciences Hospital University Science Malaysia, Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia
Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia


© Hussain et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2015

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