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Type 2 diabetes mellitus in children: are we ‘treating’ them right?

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International Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology20152015 (Suppl 1) :P21

  • Published:


  • Blood Glucose
  • Diabetic Nephropathy
  • Diabetes Retinopathy
  • Fatty Liver
  • Childhood Obesity


Incidence of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in children is rising alongside childhood obesity. In children, there is limited therapeutic options and tight blood glucose (BG) control may be challenging.


To determine metabolic control and complications in children with T2DM seen in University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC).


Data on children with T2DM referred to and managed in UMMC from 2000 until 2013 were collected. Their body mass index (BMI and blood tests (HbA1c and Lipids) were compared at presentation to their latest clinic appointment. Treatment modalities and duration of follow up were documented. T2DM was dignosed if they had hyperglycaemia (Random BG > 11.8mmol/L or fasting BG > 7mmol/L or 2hpp OGTT >11.1mmol/L with low C-Peptide). Hypertension (HPT) if BP> 90th centile for age,sex and height. Dyslipidemia is considered if either triglycerides> 1.7mmol/L, cholesterol >5.2mmol/L, HDL< 1.03mmol/L or LDL> 2.50mmol/L. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) was confirmed with ultrasound, diabetic nephropathy (DN) if urine microalbumin>3.5 in boys , >4.5 in girls and diabetes retinopathy(DR) if reported by opthalmologist.


A total of 49 children with T2DM were seen, but only 37 had available data for analysis. Their age ranged from 7-17 years old at initial presentation. Forty nine percent (n=24) were boys. The mean duration for follow up was 3.6 years(0.2-10years).

Table 1


At presentation

At last visit

Mean Age:

11.79 years old (7-17)

15.3 years old (8.9-22)

Mean Weight:



Mean BMI (SDS):

28kgm2 (+2.62)

28.5kgm2 (+1.91)

Mean WC:


94.3 cm

Mean HbA1c:

11.2% (7.4-16%)

9.7% (5.4-14.4%)


56% (21/37)

92% (34/37)



** mainly due to ketosis at diagnosis

32% (12/37)

** mainly due to poor BG control


92% (22/24 screened)

87% (21/24 screened)

Fatty Liver:

Not screened at diagnosis

80% (8/10 screened)


Not screened at diagnosis

24% (9/37)


24% (9/37)

8% (3/37)


Not screened at diagnosis

1 had early changes of diabetes retinopathy


This study revealed children with Type2DM had poor metabolic control with mean HBAc of 9.7% and early complications were already seen after 3.6 years of follow up.

Authors’ Affiliations

Department of Paediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, University Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia


© Azriyanti et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2015

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.