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Table 2 Change between baseline (V1) and 2-year follow-up (V2) within T1D and non-DM

From: Changes in diet and physical activity in adolescents with and without type 1 diabetes over time

  T1D Non-DM
Visit 1 Visit 2 Change Visit 1 Visit 2 Change
Diet
Meals/day 3.0 ± 0.6 2.9 ± 0.6 -0.1 ± 7.5** 3.0 ± 0.7 2.9 ± 0.7 -0.06 ± 0.6
Snacks/day 2.3 ± 1.2 2.3 ± 1.3 -0.05 ± 1.3 2.2 ± 1.0 2.2 ± 1.1 -0.01 ± 1.2
Breakfast# 3.3 ± 1.2 3.8 ± 1.6 0.45 ± 1.7** 3.5 ± 1.0 3.7 ± 1.8 0.15 ± 1.7
Vegetables# 2.8 ± 1.1* 3.6 ± 1.4 0.87 ± 1.5** 3.1 ± 1.2* 3.8 ± 1.3 0.69 ± 1.3**
Fruit# 2.9 ± 1.2 3.8 ± 1.3 0.89 ± 1.4** 2.9 ± 1.3 3.8 ± 1.5 0.85 ± 1.6**
Sugary beverages# 2.6 ± 1.4 2.7 ± 1.7* 0.06 ± 2.1 2.8 ± 1.3 3.2 ± 1.7* 0.45 ± 2.2
Restaurant meals# 2.1 ± 1.6 1.7 ± 1.0 -0.44 ± 1.9** 2.2 ± 1.6 1.8 ± 1.2 -0.34 ± 2.3
Fried foods# 1.9 ± 1.2 2.3 ± 1.3 0.41 ± 1.7** 1.8 ± 1.1 2.1 ± 1.2 0.27 ± 1.6
Sweets/Desserts# 2.1 ± 1.3 2.2 ± 1.3 0.11 ± 1.7 2.3 ± 1.3 2.4 ± 1.7 0.18 ± 1.9
Physical activity (PA)
PA days/week 5.0 ± 1.8 4.8 ± 1.7 -0.29 ± 2.2 4.9 ± 1.7 4.5 ± 1.9 -0.41 ± 2.3
PA hours/day 1.8 ± 1.2* 2.2 ± 1.4 0.35 ± 1.6** 1.5 ± 0.8* 1.9 ± 1.3 0.43 ± 1.2**
PA level 1.9 ± 0.6 2.0 ± 0.5 0.06 ± 0.7 2.0 ± 0.5 2.1 ± 0.6 0.12 ± 0.7
Screen time
Computer hours+ 1.5 ± 1.7 2.5 ± 2.5 0.98 ± 2.6** 1.6 ± 1.7 2.2 ± 2.4 0.61 ± 1.9**
TV hours+ 2.0 ± 1.9 1.9 ± 1.7 -0.12 ± 1.7 1.7 ± 1.6 1.9 ± 1.4 0.14 ± 1.5
Video games hours+ 0.9 ± 1.3 0.8 ± 1.2 -0.08 ± 1.2 0.8 ± 1.1 0.7 ± 1.2 -0.04 ± 1.1
Total screen time+ 4.3 ± 3.3 5.1 ± 3.5 0.78 ± 3.3** 4.1 ± 2.8 4.8 ± 3.0 0.7 ± 2.4**
Anthropometric
BMI z-score 0.6 ± 0.8* 0.5 ± 0.8* -0.04 ± 0.56 0.2 ± 1.1* 0.2 ± 1.1* 0.04 ± 0.46
  1. T1D: Type 1 Diabetes.
  2. Non-DM: non-diabetic control.
  3. #Times per week.
  4. PA level: 1 = mild, 2 = moderate, 3 = hard.
  5. +hours per day.
  6. *p < 0.05 comparing T1D and non-DM at visit 1 or visit 2.
  7. **p < 0.05 comparing change between visit 1 and visit 2 within T1D and non-DM.