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Adequate vitamin D status and adiposity contribute to bone health in peripubertal nonobese children

The dietary reference intake (DRI) of vitamin D for Korean children wasreduced from 400IU/day in 2005 to 200IU/day in 2010. We evaluated the risk factors for low vitamin D status and itsrelationships with bone health in peripubertalnonobese children living in Seoul or Gyeonggi-do. One hundred children (9.3 ±1.9 years, 71 prepubertal, 45 boys) participated in the winter (n = 38, December through March) and summer (June through September). Bone mineral content (Z_BMC), fat mass (Z_FM), lean mass (Z_LM), and bone mineral density for the total body (Z_TB) and lumbar spine (Z_L1–4) were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Twenty-nine percent of children (47.4% in winter, 17.7% in summer) were vitamin D deficient (25-hydroxyvitaminD level of <20 ng/mL). In winter, low vitamin D intake (P = 0.019) and fewer daylight hours (P = 0.015) were associated with low 25-hydroxyvitaminD level. The 25-hydroxyvitamin D level correlated positively with Z_BMC (P = 0.023), Z_TB (P = 0.018), and Z_L1–4 (P = 0.043) independently of sex, puberty, Z_FM, Z_LM, physical activity level, and calcium intake. Z_FM correlated independently with Z_BMC (P< 0.001), Z_TB (P = 0.037), and Z_L1–4 (P < 0.001). In conclusion, almost half of peripubertalnonobese children were vitamin D deficient in winter. Considering the beneficial effects of adequate vitamin D status and adiposity on bone health, the current DRI of vitamin D should be upgraded to prevent vitamin D deficiency.

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Correspondence to Jieun Lee.

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This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Lee, J., Lee, Y.A., Shin, C.H. et al. Adequate vitamin D status and adiposity contribute to bone health in peripubertal nonobese children. Int J Pediatr Endocrinol 2013, P160 (2013).

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  • Physical Activity
  • Bone Mineral Density
  • Bone Mineral
  • Lumbar Spine
  • Metabolic Disease