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Table 1 Effects of risperidone, olanzapine, haloperidol, quetiapine, clozapine, ziprasidone, and pimozide on prolactin (PRL) level and PRL related side effects [gynecomastia (GCM), galactorrhea (GLR), and irregular menses (IM) in children and adolescents. Weighted averages (adjusted for numbers of subjects per study) are given for the analysis of Roke et al. [31] with the number of studies analyzed shown in parentheses. Subsequent individual studies are separately indicated, with standard deviations in parentheses. Dashes indicate absent data.

From: Hyperprolactinemia with Antipsychotic Drugs in Children and Adolescents

  Drug Number Age (years) Dose (mg/day) Duration (weeks) PRL baseline ng/mL PRL endpoint ng/mL % with PRL nl upper limit % GCM % GLR % IM
Roke et al. [31] (20) risperidone 1390 9.7 1.6 34.8 8.2 21.6 61.7 3.0 0.5 6.2
Migliardi et al. [29] risperidone 6 (female) 12.8 (2.3) 1.9 (1.1) 52 8.4 (2.1) 23.4 (7.6) * 0
   22 (male) 10.1 (2.8) 1.7 (1.2) 52 6.5 (1.9) 14.9 (8.6) 0
Swadi et al. [30] risperidone 11 <19 6 91
Calarge et al. [32] risperidone 107 7–17 mean-36 50 8 11 33
Roke et al. [31] (7) olanzapine 170 14.4 2.7 28 11.1 24.2 31 6.2 2.8 2.4
Migliardi et al. [29] olanzapine 6 (female) 14.3 (2.1) 6.7 (3) 52 8.8 (3.8) 18 (5.2) 0 0
   7 (male) 14 (1.9) 7.5 (2.5) 52 7.8 (2.4) 11.3 (4.9) 0
Swadi et al. [30] olanzapine 11 19 6 9
Roke et al. [31]            
(5) quetiapine 72 13.9 378.5 49.6 8.4 9.3 0 0 0 0
(4) haloperidol 56 12.7 7.2 6.5 7.7 29.1 90 6.7 0 15.4
(3) pimozide 46 10.3 3.7 21.2 9.3 24.7 80
(2) clozapine 30 14.5 270 6 9.6 11.6 0 0 0 0
(1) ziprasidone 6 14.5 (1.8) 98 (40) 8.6 (6.6) 8.6 (6.6) 12 (8) 0 0 0 0
  1. *One individual transiently without dosage change.