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Table 4 Comparison of features between the present study and previous studies

From: Association of immunohistochemical markers with premalignancy in Gonadal Dysgenesis

  Present study Previous studies
Prevalence of germ cell tumor in GD population 11.5 % 15-40 %
Age 7 m - 18 y Wide age range at presentation. GB has been identified in cases < 1 yr of age.
Location of gonads in patients with malignancy 100 % in abdomen Abdominal gonads have been shown to have highest risk of malignant transformation.
Degree of virilization in patients with malignancy 3 of 4 pts were phenotypic female. Low risk: Normally virilized males
1 pt was ambiguous. Intermediate Risk: Mild undervirilization
  High Risk: Ambiguous genitalia
Gross pathology findings 3 pts had GB arising from streak gonad with ovarian stroma. Low Risk: Streak gonad without germ cells, ovary, testis without immature germ cells
1 pt had GB arising from immature testicular tissue. High Risk: Undifferentiated gonadal tissue, dysgenetic testicle
Immunohistochemistry All pts with GCT had strong expression of OCT 3/4, PLAP, β-catenin, and CD117 OCT 3/4, PLAP, β-catenin, and CD117 are established markers of germ cell malignancy.