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Table 2 Baseline clinical characteristics of group 2 children from Japan, Thailand, Italy, and the USA

From: Adiponectin/resistin levels and insulin resistance in children: a four country comparison study

  Males     Females    
  Japan Thailand Italy USA Japan Thailand Italy USA
n 97 247 168 45 85 223 144 45
Age 12.5 ± 0.1 13.1 ± 0.0 12.3 ± 0.0 13.1 ± 0.2 12.6 ± 0.1 13.0 ± 0.0 12.3 ± 0.0 13.3 ± 0.2
Height (cm) 155.6 ± 0.8b,c 159.2 ± 0.5 154.9 ± 0.7d 159.6 ± 2.0 153.2 ± 0.6c 154.0 ± 0.4 154.9 ± 0.6 156.5 ± 1.0
Weight (kg) 45.6 ± 1.0b,c 55.3 ± 0.9 48.9 ± 0.9d,e 58.1 ± 2.6 44.4 ± 1.0b,c 49.9 ± 0.9f 46.7 ± 0.8e 58.4 ± 2.5
BMI 18.7 ± 0.3a,b,c 21.8 ± 0.3 20.2 ± 0.3d,e 22.4 ± 0.7 18.8 ± 0.3b,c 21.0 ± 0.3f 19.3 ± 0.2e 23.6 ± 0.9
Waist (cm) 66.4 ± 0.8 76.8 ± 13.0 NT 68.6 ± 12.0 61.8 ± 1.0 68.4 ± 10.0 NT 67.1 ± 12.1
Systolic B.P. (mmHg) 112 ± 1.5b,c 116 ± 0.8f 110. ± 1.0d,e 122 ± 1.4 109 ± 1.5c 111 ± 0.7 108 ± 1.2e 115 ± 1.5
Diastolic B.P. (mmHg) 60 ± 0.8b,c 68 ± 0.6f 60 ± 0.7d,e 64 ± 1.1 59 ± 0.9a,b 69 ± 0.5f 62 ± 0.9d 62 ± 1.0
HDL-C (mg/dl) 64.6 ± 1.4b,c 60.6 ± 0.8f 60.9 ± 0.9e 41.8 ± 1.2 64.0 ± 1.3a,b,c 60.4 ± 0.8f 59.5 ± 0.8e 42.2 ± 1.5
TG (mg/dl) 57.4 ± 3.4a,b,c 73.5 ± 2.8f 57.3 ± 2.6d,e 105.0 ± 6.5 69.4 ± 3.3c 70.8 ± 1.8f 66.1 ± 2.3e 111.9 ± 7.7
Insulin (μU/ml) 8.3 ± 0.6a,c 10.1 ± 0.7f 12.8 ± 0.8d 14.3 ± 1.4 9.0 ± 0.6a,c 9.0 ± 0.5f 15.5 ± 0.6d,e 23.1 ± 2.8
Glucose (mg/dl) 92.8 ± 0.6 92.6 ± 0.4 90.5 ± 6.0d 91.7 ± 1.2 92.9 ± 0.7a,b,c 89.5 ± 0.5 89.5 ± 0.5 89.2 ± 1.0
HOMA-IR 1.95 ± 0.15a,c 2.35 ± 0.18f 2.91 ± 0.19 3.28 ± 0.33 2.10 ± 0.15a,c 2.03 ± 0.13f 3.45 ± 0.14d,e 5.26 ± 0.7
Adiponectin (μg/ml) 10.7 ± 0.5a 10.2 ± 0.4f 12.8 ± 0.4d 13.0 ± 1.0 11.0 ± 0.4a,c 12.0 ± 0.4 13.6 ± 0.4d 13.2 ± 1.0
Resistin (μg/ml) 14.8 ± 0.8a,b,c 19.4 ± 1.3f 9.9 ± 0.3d 9.1 ± 0.6 16.4 ± 1.2a,c 20.4 ± 1.6f 11.3 ± 0.4d 10.3 ± 0.6
  1. Each value indicates mean ± S.E. (standard error).
  2. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare all parameter levels among children from different countries.
  3. The a, b, c, d, e, f mean p < 0.05 between Japan and Italy (a), Japan and Thailand (b), Japan and USA (c), Italy and Thailand (d), Italy and USA (e), and Thailand and USA (f).
  4. BMI, body mass index; B.P., blood pressure; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol; TG, triglycerides; HOMA-IR, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance; NT, not tested.