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Table 1 Baseline clinical characteristics of group 1 children from Japan, Italy, and the USA

From: Adiponectin/resistin levels and insulin resistance in children: a four country comparison study

  Males Females
  Japan Italy USA Japan Italy USA
n 411 220 55 341 164 43
Age 9.5 ± 0.0 9.4 ± 0.0 9.2 ± 0.1 9.6 ± 0.0 9.6 ± 0.0 9.6 ± 0.2
Height (cm) 135.4 ± 0.3a,b 138.3 ± 0.5 138.0 ± 1.3 135.9 ± 0.4a,b 138.8 ± 0.6c 143.2 ± 1.4
Weight (kg) 32.8 ± 0.4a,b 34.8 ± 0.5c 41.0 ± 1.9 32.1 ± 0.4a,b 34.5 ± 0.5c 43.2 ± 1.9
BMI 17.7 ± 0.2b 18.0 ± 0.2c 21.1 ± 0.7 17.2 ± 0.1a,b 17.9 ± 0.2c 20.8 ± 0.7
Waist (cm) 60.6 ± 0.9 NT 68.6 ± 12.0 58.2 ± 0.4 NT 67.1 ± 12.1
Systolic B.P. (mmHg) 108 ± 0.7a,b 99.0 ± 0.9c 113 ± 1.5 109 ± 0.7a,b 98 ± 0.8c 115 ± 1.4
Diastolic B.P. (mmHg) 58 ± 0.4 58 ± 0.8 60 ± 1.2 58 ± 0.4b 59 ± 0.8c 64 ± 1.2
HDL-C (mg/dl) 66.5 ± 0.6a,b 61.5 ± 0.8c 45.1 ± 1.5 65.0 ± 0.6a,b 60.2 ± 0.8c 48.3 ± 3.5
TG (mg/dl) 67.1 ± 2.2a,b 52.8 ± 2.1c 105.0 ± 6.5 75.8 ± 2.3a,b 61.7 ± 2.2c 116.9 ± 7.6
Insulin (μU/ml) 6.1 ± 0.6a,b 9.6 ± 0.4 11.2 ± 2.0 7.9 ± 0.5a,b 12.0 ± 0.5c 18.0 ± 2.5
Glucose (mg/dl) 91.1 ± 0.5a 87.9 ± 0.6 90.1 ± 0.9 90.3 ± 0.5b 86.7 ± 0.5 89.1 ± 1.5
HOMA-IR 1.41 ± 0.15a,b 2.11 ± 0.10 2.51 ± 0.45 1.79 ± 0.11a,b 2.59 ± 0.12c 4.16 ± 0.6
Adiponectin (μg/ml) 12.0 ± 0.4a,b 14.0 ± 0.4 14.0 ± 0.7 13.2 ± 0.4a 14.9 ± 0.4 14.6 ± 1.0
Resistin (μg/ml) 9.1 ± 0.5 10.1 ± 0.3c 8.4 ± 0.3 10.6 ± 0.5 10.8 ± 0.3 9.1 ± 0.6
  1. Each value indicates mean ± S.E. (standard error).
  2. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare all parameters among children from different countries.
  3. The a, b, c mean p < 0.05 between Japan and Italy (a), Japan and USA (b), and Italy and USA (c).
  4. BMI, body mass index; B.P., blood pressure; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol; TG, triglycerides; HOMA-IR, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance; NT, not tested.