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Table 2 Malignancy risk based upon type of gonadal dysgenesis, location of gonad, gross pathology, and immunohistochemistry

From: State of the art review in gonadal dysgenesis: challenges in diagnosis and management

  Low risk Intermediate risk High risk
Degree of virilization Normally virilized males Mild undervirilization Ambiguous genitalia
Location of gonad Scrotal gonad with normal appearance Inguinal gonad Abdominal gonad
Gross pathology -Streak gonad without germ cells Dysgenetic testicle that is OCT 3/4 positive with intermediate risk criteria -Undifferentiated gonadal tissue
-Ovary
- Testicle (OCT 3/4 negative)
- Dysgenetic testicle that is OCT 3/4 negative -Dysgenetic testicle that is OCT 3/4 positive with high risk criteria
Immunohistochemistry OCT 3/4 negative OCT 3/4 positive cells located luminally, scattered within the whole gonad, TSPY negative or weakly positive, SCF negative, age < 1 year. OCT 3/4 positive cells located in the basal lamina, focal location, TSPY strongly positive, SCF positive, age > 1 year.
  1. Adapted from Pleskacova, et al. [45].