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Table 1 Summary of epidemiological studies associating hypospadias with low birth weight

From: Intrauterine growth restriction and hypospadias: is there a connection?

Study (year) Dataset location (years) Number of subjects with hypospadias Definition Findings Other positive associations
Chen (1971) [43] Children’s Hospital of Michigan (1961–1967) 50 NA Mean birth weight: hypospadias 2.7 kg, expected 3.3 kg Parity
p < 0.001
Sweet (1974) [2] Rochester, Minnesota, USA (1940–1970) 113 LBW: <2500 g Presence of LBW in hypospadias 9%  
Control 2%
No p value given
Kallen (1982) [44] Sweden (1965–1979) 1357 LBW: <2500 g Presence of LBW in hypospadias 8.5%, Expected 4.2% Prematurity
p < 0.001
Calzolari (1986) [45] Emilia Romagna, Italy (1978–1983) 168 NA Mean birth weight: hypospadias 2.97 kg, Controls 3.39 kg Mother’s age at menarche, threatened abortion, use of progestins in pregnancy, gestational age
p < 0.001
Kallen (1986) [46] Multiple: Denmark, Hungary, Italy, Mexico, South America, Spain, Sweden (years vary 1967–1982) 7491 LBW: <2500 g Presence of hypospadias in LBW: Maternal age, parity, gestational age, twin pregnancy
RR 1.8-2.3 (varied by country)
Khoury (1988) [35] Atlanta, Georgia, USA (1975–1984) 1111 IUGR: <10 percentile birth weight for gestational age Presence of IUGR in hypospadias: Not evaluated
RR (95% CI): 2.7 (2.3-3.1)
Stoll (1990) [47] Alsace, France (1979–1987) 176 NA Mean birth weight: hypospadias 3.19 kg, controls 3.3 kg Placental weight
OR 2.05 (95% CI 0.73-5.74)
Mili (1991) [36] Atlanta, Georgia, USA (1978–1988) 919 NA Presence of hypospadias in LBW: Not evaluated
Adjusted RR:
<1500 g: 3.3
1500-1999 g: 3.3
2000-2499 g: 2.2
Riley (1998) [37] Victoria, Australia (1983–1995) 2012 LBW <2500 g Presence of LBW in hypospadias:  
RR (95% CI): 2.23 (1.88-2.65)
Akre (1999) [48] Sweden (1983–1993) 1220 NA Presence of LBW in hypospadias: Adjusted OR (95% CI): Maternal age, parity, severe pre-eclampsia, other congenital malformations
<1500 g: 6.02 (2.51-14.41)
1500-2500 g: 2.57 (1.71-3.85)
Weidner (1999) [49] Denmark (1983–1992) 1345 NA Presence of LBW in hypospadias: Adjusted OR (95% CI): Sibling with hypospadias, previous maternal history of stillbirth
<2500 g: 3.42 (2.83-4.13)
2500-2599: 1.76 (1.47-2.10)
Carmichael (2003) [4] California, USA (1984–1997) 5838 NA Presence of LBW in hypospadias: White ethnicity, maternal education, maternal age, parity
Adjusted RR (95% CI)
<1500 g: 2.46 (1.65-3.68) to 57.5 (31.8-104) depending on severity and other anomalies
1500-2499 g: 2.16 (1.73-2.69) to 18.8 (12.4-28.5)
Carlson (2009) [58] Nova Scotia, Canada (1980–2007) 995 NA Birth weight in different severities of hypospadias: Maternal age
Adjusted OR 1.00, 95% CI 0.99-1.00
Ghirri (2009) [59] Italy (2001–2004) 234 SGA: <10 percentile for gestational age Prevalence of hypospadias in SGA: None
5.28 per 1000 live births (compared to 2.56 per 1000 in AGA), p < 0.01
Significance only in moderate-severe hypospadias
Nordenvall (2014) [13] Sweden (1973–2009) 7974 SGA: <2 SD below mean Presence of SGA in hypospadias: Parental origin, maternal body mass index, in vitro fertilization, twin pregnancy
Adjusted OR (95% CI):
4.15 (3.87-4.56)