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Table 1 Demographics at baseline (V1) and 2-year follow-up (V2)

From: Changes in diet and physical activity in adolescents with and without type 1 diabetes over time

  Visit 1 Visit 2
T1D Non-DM p-value T1D Non-DM p-value
Age, years 15.3 ± 2.2 14.9 ± 1.7 0.13 17.5 ± 2.3 16.9 ± 1.9 0.04
Male, % 51% 52% 0.88 NA NA --
Race-Ethnicity, % NHW 86% 73% 0.01 NA NA --
T1D Duration, years 8.8 ± 3.1 NA -- 11.0 ± 3.2 NA --
CSII pump, % 62% NA -- 61% NA --
HbA1c, % 9.0 ± 1.5 5.3 ± 0.3 <0.0001 9.1 ± 1.7 5.2 ± 0.2 <0.0001
BMI, kg/m 2 22.6 ± 3.7 21.4 ± 4.5 0.05 23.8 ± 3.6 22.8 ± 5.1 0.13
BMI z-score 0.61 ± 0.76 0.22 ± 1.1 0.01 0.55 ± 0.83 0.24 ± 1.05 0.04
Waist, cm 76.5 ± 9.9 74.4 ± 12.1 0.17 81.8 ± 9.3 78.7 ± 13.6 0.08
Hip, cm 94.0 ± 10.2 91.1 ± 11.1 0.06 97.7 ± 7.6 95.0 ± 11.2 0.07
  1. T1D: Type 1 Diabetes.
  2. Non-DM: non-diabetic control.