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Table 3 Univariate analysis: Factors associated with BMD Z-score ≤ - 2

From: Factors associated with low bone density in patients referred for assessment of bone health

Factor ≤ - 2 BMD Z-score BMD Z-score > - 2 p
  N = 102 N= 202  
Indication for DXA (reported on referral form)
Gastrointestinal disease* 14 (13.7%) 53 (26.2%) 0.013
Osteopenia noted on a prior x-ray 13 (12.8%) 17 (8.4%) 0.232
Hypogonadism or delayed puberty 23 (22.6%) 60 (29.7%) 0.186
Chronic disease associated with bone loss 51 (50.0%) 46 (22.8%) <0.001
Risk Factors
25OHD insufficiency (< 30 ng/mL) 68 (66.7%) 91 (45.1%) <0.001
Family history of osteoporosis 23 (22.6%) 26 (12.9%) 0.009
Has reached menarche (females only) 26 (47.3%) 95 (68.4%) 0.012
Amenorrhea (females only) 12 (35.3%) 53 (51.5%) 0.257
Delayed puberty (males only) 5 (10.9%) 5 (7.8%) 0.649
Fracture History** 42 (42.4%) 62 (31.0%) 0.051
Eating disorder 8 (7.8%) 26 (12.9%) 0.189
Cerebral palsy and/or non-ambulatory 22 (21.6%) 4 (2.0%) <0.001
Cystic fibrosis 6 (5.9%) 7 (3.5%) 0.371
Malnutrition § 17 (16.7%) 26 (12.9%) 0.370
Malabsorption or IBD 17 (16.7%) 64 (31.7%) 0.005
Osteogenisis imperfecta 3 (2.9%) 2 (0.99%) 0.339
Recipient of an organ transplant 5 (4.9%) 2 (1.0%) 0.032
Prior treatment with radiation and/or chemotherapy 8 (7.8%) 11 (5.5%) 0.415
Recipient of a bone marrow transplant 7 (6.9%) 2 (1.0%) 0.008
Glucocorticoid use ( > 2 weeks) 39 (38.2%) 74 (36.6%) 0.785
Anticonvulsant use 19 (18.6%) 13 (6.4%) 0.001
History of prematurity ‡ 9 (8.8%) 10 (4.9%) 0.022
Height z score (Mean + SD) -1.15 + 1.5 -0.37 + 1.2 <0.001
BMI z score (Mean + SD) -0.4 + 1.1 0.2 + 1.1 <0.001
  1. *Includes inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, and malabsorption.
  2. **Excludes patients with Osteogenisis Imperfecta (N=5).
  3. § Based upon clinical assessment by a nutritionist or physician, as documented in medical record.
  4. ‡ Gestational age < 36 weeks.