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Table 3 Levels of GFD Compliance in Pediatric Populations.

From: Celiac Disease and Pediatric Type 1 Diabetes: Diagnostic and Treatment Dilemmas

Author Country Age Length of Follow-up Mode of Follow-up GFD Compliance (%)
Westman et al. 1999 [67] Australia 20 CD + DM 6.9–17.4 N/A 7 day food record 30 (strict)
       30 (trace gluten diet)
       40 (non-compliant)
Mariani et al. 1998 [68] Italy 47 CD N/A Diary 53.2 (compliant)
      EMA* 46.8 (non-compliant)
Greco et al. 1997 [69] Italy 306 CD 12 Unclear Diary 73 (strict)
      GI consultant 15 (occasional gluten)
      Repeat Biopsy 12 (frequent transgressions/full gluten-containing diet)
van Koppen et al. 2009 [70] Netherlands 32 CD 12–14 10 years Interview 81 (compliant)
       19 (non-compliant)
Saadah et al. 2004 [71] Australia 21 CD + DM 7.5 1 year Structured telephone questionnaire 25.0 (Excellent)
       60.0 (Good)
       5.0 (Fair)
       10 (Poor)
Wagner et al. 2008 [72] Austria 283 CD 10–20 N/A Questionnaire 80.8 (strict)
       14.9 (2-3 transgressions/month)
       4.3 (more frequent transgressions)
Hopman et al. 2006 [73] Netherlands 132 CD N/A Questionnaire 75 (strict)
       23 (occasional consumption)
       2 (non-compliant)
Jadresin et al. 2008 [74] Croatia 71 CD 12   Questionnaire 53 (strict)
       26.4 (small amounts of gluten)
       20.6 (non-compliant)
Fabiani et al. 1996 [61] Italy 28 CD 11–14 months Questionnaire 52.2 (strict)
      EMA 47.8 (occasional transgression)
Rami et al. 2005 [38] Austria 74 CD + DM years EMA 44.6 (compliant)
       55.4 (non-compliant)
Anson et al. 1990 [75] Israel 43 CD 18 Assessment of symptoms, biopsy and antireticulin antibodies 70 (compliant)
       28 (non-compliant)
       2 (unclassified)
  1. *EMA refers to antiendomysial antibody.