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Table 1 Breast milk hormones.

From: Breast Milk Hormones and Their Protective Effect on Obesity

Hormone Year of discovery Receptor Detection of receptor in intestine Main functions Year of discovery in breast milk Method of detection in breast milk Detection in umbilical cord blood
Leptin 1994 Ob-receptor In humans [17] Anorexigenic effect 1997 RIA [1, 18], ELISA [16] [12, 19, 20]
Adiponectin 1995 Adipo-R1 Adipo-R2 In humans [21] Improvement of insulin sensitivity, increase in fatty acid metabolism, anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic properties 2006 RIA [2], ELISA [22] [20]
Ghrelin 1999 Growth hormone secretagogue receptor -1a In humans [23] Orexigenic action; stimulation of GH secretion; stimulation of acid gastric secretion and motility 2006 RIA [4, 24] [25]
IGF-I 1950 IR IGF-IR IGF-IIR Insulin receptor-related receptor IR-IGF-IR hybrid receptor In humans [26] Primary mediator of growth hormone effects; role in the regulation of postnatal human growth from late infancy onward 1984 RIA [3] Ibáñez L et al., 2008; Lagiou P et al., 2009
Resistin 2001 Unknown Unknown Regulation of insulin sensitivity 2008 ELISA [6] [27]
Obestatin 2005 GPR39 In mice [28] Anorexigenic effect? 2008 RIA [5] Unknown?