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Table 1 Table 1

From: Hormonal Regulators of Appetite

Hunger Hormone Primary location of production Receptors Action
Hypothalamus     
  NPY Medial arcuate nucleus (also widespread in CNS) Y1, Y5 Stimulating feeding and antagonizing POMC actions
  AgRP Medial arcuate nucleus MC3R and MC4R antagonist Stimulating feeding
Peripheral peptides     
  Ghrelin Stomach GHS-R1a Stimulating feeding by increasing NPY/AgRP and antagonizing leptin effects
Satiety     
Hypothalamus     
  POMC/-MSH Arcuate nucleus MC3R and MC4R Inhibiting feeding, stimulating basal metabolic rate, and altering nutrient partitioning
  CART Arcuate nucleus   Inhibiting feeding
Peripheral peptides     
  CCK Duodenum, jejunum CCK-A, CCK-B Inhibiting feeding and Stimulating pancreatic secretion, gall bladder contraction, intestinal motility, and inhibition of gastric motility
  PYY Ileum, colon, rectum Y2 Inhibiting feeding by inhibition of NPY and stimulation of POMC
  PP Endocrine pancreas Y4, Y5 Inhibiting feeding
  Oxyntomodulin Distal ileum and colon GLP-1 receptor Inhibiting gastric acid secretion, decreasing gastric emptying, and decreasing pancreatic enzyme secretion
  GLP-1 Distal ileum and colon GLP-1 receptor Delaying gastric emptying, stimulating glucose-dependent insulin secretion, inhibiting glucagon secretion, and stimulating somatostatin secretion
  GIP Stomach, duodenum, jejunum GIP receptor Glucose-dependent insulin secretion, induction of cell proliferation, promotion of energy storage, enhancement of bone formation
  Insulin Endocrine pancreas Insulin receptor Inhibiting feeding
  Leptin Adipose tissue Leptin receptor, Ob-Rb Inhibiting NPY and AgRP and Stimulating POMC and CART
  Adiponectin Adipose tissue Adipo R1, R2 Inhibiting feeding